This is one of the best examples at displaying Caillebotte's influence from Japanese art, particularly Hiroshige. The use of perspective is the most notable similarity. Many have also discussed elements of the scene as being indicative of the artist's own life - perhaps one of the figures is actually a self portrait of the artist himself, though this has never been confirmed.
Several elements of this painting are classically Caillebotte, with the architectural touches in the background being most noticeable. The artist had an excellent handling of perspective which came in handy for his frequent depictions of life in central Paris. In the foreground you will find smartly dressed figures striding around the city, and this continued again in other famous paintings by this artist (see Paris Street, Rainy Day for example).
Caillebotte adds a small dog into this scene which adds a sense of everyday life. There is also a gentleman leaning over the bridge, happily contemplating life. In line with the artist's realist style, there are no hidden messages or symbolism to be found within this painting, it is simply a skilled artist attempting to capture what he sees as accurately as possible.